Benefits of Pranayama Based on Scientific Research

benefits of pranayama

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Pranayama is about breathing science and having control over breathing brings many physical & mental benefits. Controlled breathing by pranayama techniques lets you hold the horses of your mind, you keep calm, become able to think wisely, and make the correct decisions. It eventually makes you stress-free and happy.

If you’re a beginner in Pranayama here are some useful tips & techniques have described to get a maximum of its benefits. You should check!

Being a doctor, In this article, I have described the scientifically proven benefits of pranayama. After reading these benefits, you can implement pranayama (specific techniques) in your daily life to come out of any physical & mental problems.

Just for a better understanding, If you want to know how Pranayama works, its whole science stands on the 5 Prana Vayu within the human body.  

5 Prana vayus

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Physical Benefits of Pranayama

In many pieces of researches, pranayama’s effects on the physical body have been evaluated before and after the practice (yogic intervention) & results came out, is the following.

1. Pranayama Helps in Weight Loss

pranayama helps in weight loss

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Belly fat is considered quite tough to lose and is the prime concern for many youngsters.

When you modify the technique of breathing and focus on certain parts of the body, energy is released along with increased sweating. This process burns calories as well as fat.

Pranayama aims to regulate the process of breathing. While breathing, abdominal muscles get activated. For beginners, Pranayama consists of some special breathing techniques to lose weight easily.

Some individual pranayama like “Kapalbhati Pranayama (easy steps explained here)” focuses on the abdominal part. It tones the abdomen and results in fat reduction from the belly.

Research Done

A study 1 published in the International Journal of Yoga, suggests that regular and guided practice of Pranayama is effective in weight loss.

In this study, A total of 50 people were randomly selected and were declared medically fit for this study. They were divided into two groups of 25 each, one being the study group and the control group. The study group participated in the regular pranayama activities for 6 weeks.

Result: At the end of the study, the result showed that there was a significant decrease in the Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist-Hip ratio.

This study shows, people who are looking to lose weight can achieve it with the regular practice of pranayama.

2. Pranayama is Good For Skin Health

pranayama good for skin health

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Pranayama benefits your skin also, do you know how?

Because Pranayama also comprises of the practice of holding the breath for a certain period of time (Kumbhaka or breath retention). When we hold the breath inside the body, it supplies oxygen to skin cells.

The Yogic breathing technique like Bhramari Pranayama & Bhastrika pranayama especially has positive effects on the facial skin. Bhramari pranayama with shanmukhi mudra & chin lock is especially beneficial to supply ample oxygen to body cells, thus it glows the skin.

These breathing techniques increase the supply of oxygen which increases the blood thrush and improves the appearance of skin. They also detoxify the blood which often is considered as the etiology (causes of a disease) for various skin woes.

Research Done

A review article 2 published in the Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine explains various benefits of Pranayama including the skin.

The anti-oxidant, cellular and tissue effects of pranayama improve skin health and prevent premature ageing e.g. facial lines, wrinkles, freckles, dark spots, etc.

3. Pranayama Improves Digestion

pranayama improves digestion

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Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are nowadays very common digestive disorders accompanied by gastritis and acidity. IBS and IBD are the diseases which are not treated completely in allopathy.

There is a very famous saying:

There is a brain in the head and there is also a brain in the gut.

By stimulating the brain activity, pranayama monitors the digestion and improves that too.

Diseases like diarrhea and hyperacidity can also be caused by stress and anxiety by affecting the gut-brain axis. Pranayama helps to calm the mind and provide relief from anxiety which in turn reduces these digestive issues.

A consistent practice of Yogic breathing technique is proved to be promising in the management of chronic digestive disorders.

Research Done

A research paper 3 reflects that Pranayama has effects on the autonomic response which is helpful in treating disorders like Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

In a control trial study, a group of 21 male IBS-D patients was recruited & divided into 2 groups (Yoga group = 9; conventional group = 12). Yoga group has asked to practice certain yoga postures with right nostril breathing while the conventional group to simple postures only. 

The yoga group showed significant improvements in bowel symptom score while in the conventional group has no such improvements. 

4. Pranayama Takes Care of The Lungs

pranayama takes care of lungs

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Pranayama trains you to improve your expiratory power to enhance the airflow by decreasing resistance to the lungs. Simply pranayama practice is the best exercise for the human respiratory system.

It trains you to voluntarily keep a hold over your breath which in turn maintains the isometric contraction of respiratory muscles.

Pranayama like Ujjayi breathing, which requires forceful respiration, increases respiratory endurance by acting on the respiratory muscles.

Pranayama causes increased expansion of the chest wall and lungs. It improved lung capacity and all lung functions. The respiratory apparatus is improved by increasing the efficiency of abdominal and diaphragmatic muscles.

With regular practice of Pranayama, inflation, and deflation of lungs reach to the fullest and start working at the maximum extent possible. Pranayama also brings positive changes in the respiratory pressure and cycle.

Research Done

A research paper 4 based on a study conducted on 50 adults subject to know the effect of pranayama for over a period of 6 weeks suggested the following results.

Results: The dynamic parameters of the lung including Pulmonary function tests showed marked improvement. It strengthens the lung can be used to treat various lung diseases like asthma, allergic bronchitis, occupational diseases and recoveries after pneumonia and tuberculosis.

5. Good For Nasal Passages & Sinuses

pranayama good For nasal passages

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Pranayama like alternate nostril breathing (anulom vilom) helps to clear the blockages in the nasal cavity. The regular practice of pranayama helps the nostrils to become free of allergies and enhance the filtering capacity towards the foreign element which causes inflammation.

Pranayama shows anti-inflammatory effects and mechanically clean the sinus cavities also.

The inflammation in sinuses can cause throbbing headaches, nasal congestion, and running noses. Pranayama not only improves the ventilation but also acts on the proper drainage of the sinuses and in turn relieves the symptoms of sinusitis.

The pranayama, like Bhramari, creates humming sound, encourages air movement between the sinuses and nasal cavity by to and fro motion. It leads to clearing away the blocked Ostia. It prevents the foci of microbes and allergens.

Research Done

Some studies suggest that pranayama relieves chronic sinusitis by reducing anxiety and psychological symptoms.

A paper 5 based on the study of the effects of nasal breathing exercise on nasal problems (allergic rhinitis) suggests that it is a simple and economical method to reduce the symptoms of inflammation of nose and sinuses.

6. Improves Cardiovascular Health

breathing improves cardiovascular health

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Cardiovascular system 6 in the humans consists of heart (pumping of blood) and a net of arteries, veins, & capillaries (blood carriers). This system is also known as the circulatory system.

Pranayama plays an important role in modifying the heart rate by stimulating cells of the body. It also increases oxygen intake.

Sukha Pranayama & Pranava Pranayama improve the circulation to the heart, decrease the heart rate and improves blood pressure.

Studies done on yogic breathing techniques has already proved its immediate effect on the hypertensive subjects. It shows a significant reduction in the heart rate, Systolic Blood Pressure, Pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure.

Research Done

A study 7 has shown the effect of 3 months regular practice of slow breathing for 5 min/day maintaining 2:1 ratio of exhalation and inhalation.

Result: Significant reduction in blood pressure & heart rate while increased fingertip temperature.

Another study 8 involving 6 weeks of training in Pranayama along with medications to treat hypertension. Pranayama has reduced BP significantly compared to medication alone.

Pranayama is also beneficial in the treatment of people with irregular heartbeats. A study demonstrated the beneficial effects 9 of the practice of Pranayama in patients with Cardiac arrhythmia.

7. Pranayama Boost Immunity

pranayama builds immunity

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Stress has a deteriorating effect on the immune system of the body. By inhibiting the stress-response, pranayama has shown enhancement in the function of the immune system.

Deep breathing exercises which focus on the abdomen with breath retention or kumbhaka, improves the defense mechanism of the body and boosts your immunity. 

Research Done

A systematic review 10 based on the effects of yoga and pranayama over the immune system reflects the benefits of pranayama.

Results:  It showed that yogic breathing downregulates pro-inflammatory markers. It also has beneficial effects on cell-mediated and mucosal immunity. If practiced regularly and for a longer duration, it can help to achieve consistent effects on circulating markers.

Hence, breathing exercise helps to boost immunity.

8. Pranayama Helps In Detoxification

detoxification through pranayama

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Yogic exercises along with pranayama cleanse the body as well as mind. The process of exhalation not only concerned with breathing out the air but also, along with it, waste from the body. This is the body’s natural phenomenon to throw the poisons out of our system and make the body function properly and to its maximal.

Prana or breath can only flow freely if there is no or very little unwanted stuff in the system. So with consistent and guided practice of breathing modification, the toxins of the body are removed.

By detoxifying, pranayama helps to achieve the pure, happy and tranquil state of mind and body. 

Research Done

To determine the effect of Pranayama for detoxification, 60 young students of MBBS examined 11  & as always, they divided into 2 groups. 

One group of 30 students has practiced breathing exercises namely Vibhaga pranayama, Kapalabhati pranayama, Nadi suddhi pranayama, and Savithri pranayama regularly for 30 minutes in the morning. The Control group didn’t participated in any pranayama practice. 

Within 6 weeks of practice, In pranayama group it has seen the body detoxification process has improved (by measuring different variables for lungs functions). Among all 4 breathing techniques, Kapalbhati is suggested most useful breathing (as a physical exercise) for purification of both body & mind.   

Benefits of Pranayama for Brain

The process of breathing creates a link between the physical body and the mind. The effects of yogic breathing techniques are quite different from the usual breathing, as it stimulates the unconscious mind also.

Pranayama in itself comes under physical activity but its effect is beyond physicality. Here are a few studies which show how pranayama working beneficial in improving brain power and mental health.

9. Improves Concentration

pranayama improves concentration

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Pranayama like Nadi Shodhana & anulom Vilom has proved to regulate the autonomic response by strengthening the parasympathetic nervous system.

By increasing the oxygen supply to the brain, pranayama not only calms it but also makes it free of anxiety. It enables you to take charge of your thoughts. Thoughts no more control you, rather you become the master of your mind. As it nullifies the distractions, your concentration increases manifold.

Research Done

In a research 12, 84 participants of age group 18-25 years were recruited for slow and fast pranayama to assess the effects of the same.

Results:  It suggested that both (slow & fast) types of pranayama improve cognitive functions. The fast pranayama e.g kapalabhati, bhastrika and kukkuriya are good in enhancing the executive function of manipulation in auditory working memory. It also has beneficial effects on central neural processing and sensory-motor performance.

These functions of pranayama suggest it’s helpful in improving the concentration.

10. Helps to Treat Sleep Disorder

pranayama helpful in sleep disorders

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Yogic breathing works as a panacea for people suffering from insomnia. Along with insomnia, other sleep disorders are caused because of anxiety and depression of a person.

The people with insomnia and other sleep-related disorder, if start performing the routine yogic breathing along with Yoga Asanas and meditation religiously get benefitted. They can get a sound sleep free of negative thoughts and nightmares.

Research Done

This research 13 has shown how ageing is affecting sleep quality in older adults (age>59). Researchers told the main reason behind it is untreated insomnia and reduced quality of life (QoL).

Results: Yoga intervention results on trial group have shown yogic breathing is effective in improving the overall sleep quality (measured on different sleep scale). Yoga is also helpful in improving QoL.

11. Act as a Stress Reliever

pranayama act as stress reliever

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The feeling of being depressed, anxious, fearful or low leads to various problems to your psychological behavior. You do not only remain irritated or agitated but also lower your potential to work with full efficiency.

Regular practice of Yoga and Pranayama eliminate all these negativity and charges your aura with optimism and relaxation.

Research Done

The research 14 has proven breathing exercises play an important role in reducing perceived stress & negative feelings.

In this research It’s shown, various pranayama like Kapalabhati, Anuloma Viloma, Ujjayi, Bhastrika, Sitali, Sitkari, Surya Bhedana & Bhramari, by controlling the Prana or vital life force, reduce depression & anxiety symptoms for general well being of a person.

12. Increases Gray Matter Of Brain

pranayama improves brain grey matter

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Gray matter 15 is the component of the brain that consists of cells of the nervous system. It starts diminishes in older people and one of the main cause of it is memory loss with time.

Research Done

To assess the effect of pranayama on brain functions & gray matter volume, In a study 16, two months sitali & sheetkari pranayama effect calculated.

It’s seen, by the practice of these 2 pranayamas, delta and alpha band power in the frontal brain region improved. Also, it increases theta band power which shows decrement in beta band power.

A decreased beta band power keeps the brain calm and quiet with less anxiety. These qualities helps in increasing the volume of brain’s gray matter. Gray matter in the brain improves the vision, thinking, memory and decision-making ability.

13. Makes Mind Well Oriented

pranayama makes mind well oriented

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Pranayama is helpful to bring focus into the mainstream. The most common reason for failure or delay in the desired outcome, whether it is related to studies or work, is a distraction.

When your energy is not centralised and mind clutter with negativity and doubt, it becomes difficult to reach the destination effectively.

Research Done

It has shown in a study 17 that higher oxygen consumption is associated with intense physical activity & so is responsible for stress, pathology, and accelerated aging. In this way, our mind fluctuates & it doesn’t become stable enough.

Pranayama, by regulating controlled breathing exercises helps the brain to be stable & thus it makes mind well oriented. It not only improves the orientation of the mind but makes it efficient and active.

14. Effective For Brain Disorders

pranayama effective in brain disorders

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Pranayama helps to release the toxins not only from blood but also enhances the filtering capacity of the brain. It increases the passage of nanoparticles to the brain through the Blood-Brain Barrier and also filters the unwanted toxic materials which you often inhale in the polluted environment. It also filters the toxin which gets accumulated due to smoking.

Research Done

One-sided yogic breathing like Surya bhedna pranayama from one nostril at a time has shown positive effects on that side of the brain 18. By the practice of such breathing exercises, Alzheimer’s disease, brain cancer like brain disorders can be treated easily.

Spiritual Benefits of Pranayama

Pranayama, whether it’s the slow breathing or fast breathing, it helps you to grow spiritually. It calms your mind by muting the unnecessary chatter going at the back of your head. As pranayama increases the olfactory senses, the fragrance and smell in the environment also becomes a relieving factor and helps our mind and soul to rejuvenate.

All the physical and psychological benefits of yoga and pranayama eventually brighten the spiritual aspect of your life.

Yoga is the union of self to the higher self, i.e. the body and soul grow together for connecting you to the ultimate divinity of the Universe. Pranayama being an integral part of Yogic practice helps to manifest the same.

It enhances your clairvoyance and sixth sense. Your wisdom achieves its highest state and you start exhibiting the highest potential in decision making and actions.

Hence, pranayama is not only an exercise to regulate your Prana but also channelizes the positive effects it has on your overall body, mind, and behavior.

Pranayama Benefits FAQs

  1. what should be the duration of practicing pranayama?

    It depends on which kind of pranayama, you are willing to practice. Bhastrika and kapalbhati are intensive and increase body temperature in a few seconds. So, these have to be performed for a lesser time than normal. Normally, 10 to 15 or 20 to 30 minutes is considered ideal timings.

  2. Is Pranayama helpful in preventing coronavirus disease symptoms?

    However, no ayurvedic or yogic practices have scientifically proven helpful, yet it's helpful in reducing Coronavirus anxiety & build immunity. Since Coronavirus is a respiratory syndrome, Pranayama by regulating better Prana flow in body, strengthen lungs & reduce stress response. This makes the immune system strong.

  3. I have been obese from the past few years, which pranayama would be beneficial in reducing weight?

    Kapalbhati pranayama is best for you in helping weight loss. Deep and forceful breathing fastens the metabolism. Fast breathing requires energy, which is fulfilled by the activated metabolism by burning calories at a great pace.

  4. Is it possible to perform pranayama in pregnancy?

    Absolutely! It is totally fine. Due to stress and anxiety experienced by mother, her body releases adrenaline hormone. The secretion of this hormone delays the release of the oxytocin hormone, which aids in labor. By practicing pranayama, the body releases the oxytocin hormone at the appropriate time. However, pranayama also removes the toxic generates by the mother and the baby as well. Rapid breathing & holding breath for too long is not advisable in pregnancy, slow and steady wins the race here.

  5. Does pranayama help in memory?

    As state in point no. 12 in the article of the pranayama benefits section, regular pranayama practice helps in increasing the volume of grey matter in the brain. Grey matter is a neuronal area concern with memory.

  6. Can pranayama cure stress and anxiety?

    Pranayama involves deep and long breathing. This soothes the body by rushing oxygenated blood to the various body parts, especially the brain. Therefore, helps in settling the emotions or attachments triggering stress and anxiety. Finally, it refreshes and calms the mind and body.

  7. My husband is insomniac, shall I insists him to do pranayama?

    Pranayama improves the blood circulation o the brain's area concerning with the sleep-wake cycle. However, it also calms the parasympathetic system, if performed before the sleep.

  8. Does pranayama help in concentration?

    It has been stated in point no. 9 of the benefits of Pranayama section. Pranayama breathing supplies oxygenated blood to the autonomic nervous system, which helps in calming or soothing. However, it also controls the unnecessary thoughts of pop-ups and helps in building concentration.

  9. Which pranayama is best for the glowing skin?

    According to the point no. 2 of Pranayama benefits section, kumbhaka or breath retention in pranayama supplies oxygen to the skin cells. However, breathing also detoxifies the blood, ultimately improve the skin tone.

  10. Is it safe to perform pranayama in sinusitis?

    Bhramari pranayama has ventilating and anti-inflammatory effects regarding the sinusitis. Regular practice improves the condition.

  11. My grandfather has a flatulence, what if I tell him to do pranayama?

    Deep pranayama breathing helps in stimulating the vagus nerve, which is responsible for the various digestive organ's activities.

References

  1. Pranayam on obesity of affected individuals http://www.sportsjournal.in/download/31/1-1-47-419.pdf
  2. Yogic breath regulation: A narrative review of scientific evidence https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0975947617303224 
  3. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4438173/ 
  4. Short Term Effect of Pranayama
    on the Lung Parameters https://www.jcdr.net/articles/PDF/1861/6%20-%203476.(A).pdf 
  5. Nasal Breathing Exercise and its Effect on Symptoms of Allergic Rhinitis https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3392338/
  6. Introduction to the Cardiovascular System https://training.seer.cancer.gov/anatomy/cardiovascular/
  7. Effect of slow breathing training on heart rate https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jyoti_Dvive.pdf 
  8. Effect of pranayama on rate pressure product in mild hypertensives https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4137644/
  9. Effect of Pranayama (Breathing Exercise) on Arrhythmias in the Human Heart https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1550830711002837
  10. Yoga and immune system functioning: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29429046 
  11. Effects of Pranayama on detoxification https://www.ijmrhs.com 
  12. Effect of Fast and Slow Pranayama Practice on Cognitive Functions In Healthy Volunteers https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3939514/ 
  13. Yoga for improving sleep quality and quality of life for older adults https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24755569 
  14. Effects Of Yoga And Pranayam On Psychological Disorders https://storage.googleapis.com/journal-uploads/ejpmr/article_issue/1507027269.pdf
  15. what is the gray matter? https://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Grey-Matter.aspx 
  16. Improvement of Brain Function through Combined Yogic Intervention, Meditation and Pranayama https://www.researchgate.net/publication/
  17. Oxygen Consumption Changes With Yoga
    Practices https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2156587213492770
  18. Effect of uninostril yoga breathing on brain hemodynamics https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4728953/

16 Comments

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